This is a roundup of news articles, reports, and other materials focusing on (in)security issues and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of Security in Context. The goal is to shed light on knowledge production on security-related issues of public interest from critical perspectives and from global south readings by highlighting media from four particular regions: Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, and developing Asia. Entries may include academic journal articles, think tank reports, non-governmental organizations releases, official documents or government-commissioned research, and regular news items. The material included covers SiC’s key security issues: Climate Change, Security and International Relations, Migration and Displacement, Covid-19 and Capitalism, Technologies of Surveillance, Gender, Race, Ethnicity and Sexuality, Arms and the Military-industrial Complex, and Censorship. 

You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each roundup to

Roundup Highlights

Poster Created by Nick Bythrow

Video created by Tom Nicholson

Latin America and the Caribbean

Contributions by Rowan Moxley

Chile declares national mourning after three police officers killed

April 28, 2024

Three police officers were killed in southern Chile, showing the depth and strength of disagreements between locals and law enforcement figures in the Latin American nation. The President called it cowardly and has announced three days of mourning to honor their deaths.

Haiti Prime Minister Ariel Henry resigns, transitional council takes power

April 25, 2024

Prime Minister Ariel Henry resigned, and has not returned to Haiti since his resignation. The reaction to the transitory government is unknown, and the extreme violence of the preceding few months has led five million Haitians into “acute hunger.”

Huge crowds protest Colombian president’s planned reforms

April 22, 2024

Former leftist Gustavo Petro’s reform efforts have been met with much resistance from the Colombian opposition, as they take to the streets to protest new reforms targeting access to healthcare and education.

US reimposes oil sanctions against Venezuela over election concerns

April 18, 2024

In response to fear about abusing the democratic process, entailing harassment and detainments of the political opposition and unfair play in government trading, the US has reimposed oil sanctions on the Venezuelan regime.

Ecuador declares energy emergency amid severe regional drought and El Niño

April 17, 2024

El Niño has been having catastrophic effects on the Latin American region, as a drought in Colombia compels the nation to cut off energy exports to Ecuador. In the wake of this conflict, Ecuador has declared a state of emergency, where unpredictable water levels render the nation’s hydropower plants useless.

In Brazil, an abortion debate pits feminists against the church

April 12, 2024

Brazil’s Penal Code only permits abortion if the fetus is a result of sexual assault, which has been a subject of controversy for activists all around Brazil as they question the social implications of that metric. Activists claim the law puts poor and Black women at a specific disadvantage.

’On borrowed time’: World marks new global heat record in March

April 9, 2024

This March was the hottest March in world history, marking the tenth straight hottest month in a sequence of worrying global warming events. 

Latin American countries condemn Ecuador raid on Mexico embassy

April 7, 2024

Many Latin American countries have rallied against Nicaragua following their raid on a Mexican embassy which was storing a controversial politician who had been granted political asylum there. As of now, nine counties have severed diplomatic relations with Nicaragua.

Peru’s President Boluarte avoids impeachment effort over Rolex watch probe

April 4, 2024

The second attempt to proceed with impeachment trials for the Peruvian president have been met with failure as lawmakers vote to avoid the issue. This would be the sixth impeachment in the country since 2018, as the constitution allows for impeachment proceedings without evidence of illegal activity.

Violence flares again in Haiti as PM questions promised political solution

April 2, 2024

Violence has erupted in Haiti, once again, as the controversial Prime Minister Ariel Henry questions the validity of the promised transitory government and announces his plans to help in the installment of the new government. 


Contributions by Nick Bythrow

Kenya: 44 people die due to flooding

April 26, 2024

Heavy rain in Kenya is causing major flooding across the nation, with 44 people dead and over 60,000 impacted at the time this article was posted. The floods have also interrupted Kenya’s railroad and highway systems.

Waste pickers play a key role in the fight against plastic pollution – insights from South Africa into how their voices can be heard

April 26, 2024

This article highlights research into waste pickers in South Africa, who efforts assist in the cleaning of plastics and other waste from the nation. The article also includes highlighting the International Alliance of Waste Pickers ensuring a just transition for them in 34 countries following the UN’s passing of the Plastics Treaty.

Burkina Faso’s army executed more than 200 civilians: Rights group

April 25, 2024

Human Rights Watch reports that Burkina Faso’s military has executed 223 civilians in two mass killings in February. Those killed include 56 children. These operations were part of a military campaign rooting out civilians supposedly working with rebel groups to attack the government.

News: Diplomatic missions in Addis Abeba call for de-escalation amid unrest in Raya Alamata district, Tigray region

April 22, 2024

Violent altercations in the Raya Alamata district of Ethiopia’s Tigray region have resulted in multiple countries from North America and Europe–as well as Japan–to vocalize concerns about diplomatic efforts in the region. This includes the displacement of many people who lived there, with the UN warning the situation is likely to worsen over time.

About 15 million Sudanese in need of urgent health assistance

April 21, 2024

The ongoing war in Sudan, which has now persisted for over a year, has resulted in 15 million people across the country urgently needing assistance from healthcare providers. 80% of the medical services in the nation have ceased with drug reserves and current technology making it unsustainable to fulfill the needs of the people.

Zimbabweans forced to use US dollar in absence of new currency ZiG

April 15, 2024

Zimbabwe has been forced to use the US dollar since April 8, following a delay until April 30 for the country’s new gold-backed ZIG currency. Prior to this change, the country’s ZIG traded at 28,720 per 1 US dollar.

Partner nations urge Ethiopian gov’t to prioritize emergency funding to humanitarian needs ahead of high-level pledging event

April 11, 2024

17 partner countries pledging to assist in Ethiopia’s humanitarian crisis have pushed for the country’s government to prioritize funding for the most emerging needs in the nation. This includes protecting vulnerable and poorer parts of the nation from suffering due to a lack of food, water, and medical resources.

Sudan’s civil war enters its first year: Famine looms large

April 11, 2024

This article reflects on the first year of Sudan’s still-ongoing civil war, highlighting the lack of aid and increase in famine the country is currently struggling with. It also underscores how the worldwide focus on other global conflicts–such as the war in Gaza–has rendered public acknowledgement of the country’s ongoing crisis almost silent.

A week of mourning in Rwanda to commemorate 30 years of 1994 genocide

April 7, 2024

Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame led a commemoration ceremony to remember 30 years of the Rwandan genocide, placing wreathes on mass graves in Kigali. The genocide resulted in 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus being killed by the Rwandan Patriotic Front in 1994 over the span of 100 days.

South Africa’s crucial water supplies from Lesotho: what the six-month shutdown means for industry, farming and residents

April 5, 2024

Greater Johannesburg will be facing a major water supply shutdown for six months starting in October 2024, leading to major consequences for the region. This includes water scarcity for citizens in the area, as well as a reduction in agricultural production because of the upcoming water restrictions.

Middle East

Contributions by Tom Nicholson

UAE Recovers from Record Rainfall, Infrastructure Review Ordered

April 26, 2024

The United Arab Emirates is in recovery after the record-amounts of rainfall and flooding it received this month. Experts have since denied artificial cloud seeding as a factor in the flooding and the attributed factors are now solely a combination of climate change and poor city infrastructure—the latter of which is currently under review.

Gaza health system ’completely obliterated’: UN expert

April 22, 2024

The medical infrastructure in Gaza has been severely damaged since the start of Israel’s war on Gaza. This article analyzes the current state of healthcare in Gaza and the factors that have damaged it during the war.

War on Gaza: Israeli drones lure Palestinians with crying children recordings then shoot them

April 17, 2024

Israeli forces have started using quadcopter drones to lure Palestinians out into locations where they are easy targets. Reports reveal that, under the cover of night, the drones play back audio recordings of children or women in distress and then shoot at anyone who investigates.

Climate change and cloud seeding ’exacerbated’ deadly flooding in Gulf countries

April 17, 2024

Gulf countries in the Middle East have been hit with severe flooding, causing the death of a reported 18 people in Oman alone. The rainstorms are suspected to have been made far more potent than usual due to a mixture of climate change and recent cloud seedings.

Unexploded 1,000-pound bombs found in Gaza schools

April 16, 2024

In the Gazan city of Khan Yunis, a UN agency-led “assessment mission” discovered the presence of undetonated 1,000-pound explosives inside of schools and on roads—all left behind when Israeli forces withdrew from the area. The assessment concluded that the clearance of Gaza would take many years and over 40 million in USD.

Iran launches attack drones and missiles at Israel

April 13, 2024

A fleet of Iranian drones were launched at Israel and then intercepted above Israeli airspace. The drone attack was Iran’s retaliation to Israel killing several senior Iranian commanders in an attack earlier in the month.

Israel shuts down a town in the occupied West Bank, cancelling Eid for Palestinians

April 11, 2024

The town of Jayyus has been shut down by Israeli officials who suspect that the town is hiding a Palestinian gunman who is responsible for a nearby shooting attack. Civilian activities in the town have been severely restricted for the past 5 days, thereby also cancelling the Muslim festival of Eid for the entire town.

Iran’s nuclear achievements highlighted on National Day of Nuclear Technology

April 8, 2024

The accomplishments of Iran’s nuclear program thus far were celebrated during Iran’s Nuclear Technology Day. Mohammad Eslami, the Head of Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization, added that the program has held strong despite any attempts made by outside regimes to either sabotage the program or pressure it onto the path of weaponry.

’AI-assisted genocide’: Israel reportedly used database for Gaza kill lists

April 4, 2024

Israel’s bombardments as of late were allegedly made using an AI-assisted targeting system called Lavender. The system reportedly has an error rate of 10% and has been the cause of thousands of civilian deaths according to Israeli media outlets.

Israel kills 7 World Central Kitchen staff in airstrike amid ongoing attacks on aid networks

April 2, 2024

Seven staff members of the non-profit, non-government organization World Central Kitchen (WCK) were killed in transit when an Israel airstrike hit two WCK-branded armored cars. There is a controversy (at the time of this article’s publication) as to whether the attack was intentional or a mistake.

Developing Asia

Contributions by Prisca Afantchao

US Senate approves bill mandating aid to Taiwan

April 25, 2024

The United States senate passed a bill allocating $8 billion USD to Taiwan. The aid is meant to counter threats to Taiwan and the Indo-Pacific region and the aid will begin arriving in Taiwan during the upcoming weeks. During a meeting with a US delegation, the Taiwanese president thanked the US for their aid.

Bank of Thailand Pressured to Cut Rates as Baht Hits 6-Month Low

April 24, 2024

Prime Minister Srettha Thavisin has requested the four largest commercial banks in Thailand to lower loan interest rates for disadvantaged groups and small enterprises, following the Bank of Thailand’s refusal to reduce borrowing costs amidst depreciation of the Thai baht’s value. 

Iran-Pak gas pipeline remains stalled under cloud of sanctions

April 24, 2024

Pakistan and Iran have emphasized cooperation in the energy sector, including trade in electricity and power transmission lines, and the IP Gas Pipeline Project. The pipeline, signed in 2010, aims to supply natural gas from Iran’s South Pars field to Pakistan. However, the US government expressed disapproval and warned Islamabad against cooperating with Tehran due the risk of being sanctioned. 

Jokowi Calls for Unity after Constitutional Court Upholds Prabowo’s Presidential Win

April 23, 2024

President Joko Widodo urged an end to public debates over the presidential election results after the Constitutional Court confirmed Prabowo Subianto as the winner. He called for national unity as his administration prepares for a smooth transition.

Philippines vying to host new global climate fund

April 23, 2024

The Philippines is forming an interagency technical working group to host the Loss and Damage Fund (LDF) Board, a global financial mechanism providing aid to countries most affected by climate change. President Marcos has expressed interest in hosting the board for developing nations.

China says US’ overcapacity claims a disguise for crackdown, constitute bullying against Chinese industry

April 22, 2024

China’s Foreign Ministry rebuked the US accusation of Chinese overcapacity, stating it was a disguise for US attempts to curb China’s industrial development and a form of economic coercion and bullying.

ADB provides $71 mn for climate resilient water management in Bangladesh

April 20, 2024

The Asian Development Bank and Bangladesh’s government have signed a $71 million loan agreement to enhance flood control, irrigation, and water resources management in rural communities to combat climate change.

Japan court denies salmon fishing rights to Ainu people

April 19, 2024

Japan’s court dismissed Ainu Indigenous people’s bid for salmon fishing rights, marking the first decision on Indigenous rights related to Ainu people, who have faced discrimination and forced assimilation.

People and mountains are thirsty in eastern Nepal

April 13, 2024

Water scarcity, subsistence farming, and debt have driven farmers away from Aathrai village in eastern Nepal. The Tamor Drinking Water Pump Project is currently working on digging another well, while 11 other projects have been planned to pump water to mountain villages in order to lower rates of outmigration from the region.

China extends hands to both Koreas in diplomatic dance

April 10, 2024

China is negotiating a trilateral summit with South Korea and Japan, marking the first meeting since December 2019. The summit is expected to take place in late May, following Taiwanese President-elect Lai Ching-te’s inauguration. According to the Chinese Foreign Ministry, China’s top legislator will make an official visit to North Korea.

Geopolitics and Economic news of China

Contributions by Lea Bou Doumit

This section presents a selection of open access articles licensed under creative commons revolving around China trade. Security in Context is resharing them to offer readers fresh content and deeper perspectives on global news.

China’s Auto Industry to Grow from Large to Strong

April 28, 2024

The auto industry’s competitiveness relies on economies of scale and technological advantages. China’s auto industry aims to improve supply chain resilience and maintain scale advantage. Disruptive innovation, like smart electric vehicles, creates opportunities. China’s joint-venture strategy could improve its core technologies, requiring government and market collaboration.

The Globalization of Chinese Home Appliance Brands: A Long Way to Go

April 28, 2024 

China, a major home appliance manufacturer, faces challenges in globalization due to low labor costs, strong domestic demand, and well-equipped facilities. The industry’s shift from Europe and the US to Japan, South Korea, and China has led to higher value-added activities and dependence on foreign companies. To address these challenges, China could collaborate with Southeast Asian countries.

Why China risks US sanctions arming Russia: Survival

April 27, 2024

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken warned China of being a major contributor to weapons-related technology to Russia, posing a significant threat to European security. China has complied with US requests not to sell arms to Russia during the Ukraine war, but its extensive list of military-use items could have military use. China’s distrust of Russia may have fueled a high-level visit to North Korea, amid rising North Korea-Russia relations. China’s security risk hinges on North Korea’s dependence on China.

China in South America: Impacts of the Space Plan

April 23, 2024

Argentina and China signed a framework agreement to install a space station in Bajada del Agrio, Neuquén province, between 2012 and 2014. The concessionary stance is based on ideological empathy and the dynamic bilateral economic relationship. The US has been indifferent to these developments, focusing on extra-hemispheric areas of tension. The presence of facilities like the Chinese space station in Argentina introduces the region into the Sino-U.S. strategic conflict and escalates tensions between China and the United States.

Is there a hidden cost of China’s Pacific play?

April 17, 2024 

China’s investment in the Pacific has significantly impacted nations like Solomon Islands, reshaping their economic and political trajectories. Since 2008, China has committed over $9 billion to infrastructure, development, education, and commercial projects, accounting for 46% of total official loans in the region. However, opposition leaders, including Mathew Wale and Kenilorea Jr, have expressed concerns about Solomon Islands’ economic dependence on China. The Solomon Islands received over $500 million in infrastructure loans from China between 2019-2022.

As China-Gulf relations deepen, here are 3 key sectors for growth

April 10, 2024 

China is enhancing its economic ties with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), a loose alliance of six Gulf states. Both regions are major drivers of global GDP growth, highly dependent on energy, and share deeply ingrained values. The World Economic Forum convened business leaders from Greater China and GCC to explore ways to enhance understanding and build partnerships. Renewable energy is a key area of collaboration, and financial markets present opportunities for China-Gulf integration. Travel and tourism are key to unlocking further integration, with flights from China to the GCC doubling since pre-COVID-19 levels.

Xi-Biden call: rediscovery of the art of diplomacy

April 9, 2024 

US President Joe Biden and Chinese President Xi Jinping held a phone call to stabilize their relationship and address issues like Taiwan, the US TikTok ban, tariffs, and China’s support for Russia. Both sides emphasized candidity and commitment to face-to-face diplomacy. The call builds on their November meeting, suggesting a return to direct interactions and a slight thawing of the relationship. The US-China relationship is influenced by potential flashpoints like North Korea’s belligerence, Middle East conflict, and Israeli attack

China: why the country’s economy has hit a wall – and what it plans to do about it

March 19, 2024

China’s annual parliamentary meetings concluded on March 11, addressing the country’s weak economy and high expectations. The government declared a GDP growth target of 5% in 2024, but the rapid growth is hindered by market incentives, cheap labor, infrastructure investment, exports, and foreign direct investment. The ailing real estate sector is a major risk to China’s economy, and the government is working to deflate the property bubble. China’s focus on AI and technology will bring new challenges.

China’s economy is still far out growing the U.S. – contrary to Western media “fake news”

March 6, 2024

The GDP data for China, the U.S., and other G7 countries for 2023 shows that China’s economy outperformed all other comparable economies, contradicting media claims of a slowdown. The U.S. Congressional Budget Office estimates annual average U.S. GDP growth at 1.8% between 2023 and 2023. If China hits its 2035 growth target, it will become the world’s largest economy. China’s GDP grew by 20.1% compared to all G7 states, with India growing faster than other BRICS economies.

China’s Africa Policy during the Xi Jinping Era (2012-2022)

March 2024 

This study analyzes China’s African policy during the Xi Jinping era, focusing on political, economic, security, and socio-cultural aspects. Africa is crucial for global actors, and China has intensified relations since the 1990s. The study examines turning points in China’s approach, focusing on economic interests, political consolidation, and establishing reliable relations, paving the way for China’s security role in the region.

Israel and Palestine

Contributions by Rama Hayek and Diego Winger

ICJ rejects issuing measures for Germany to halt arms export to Israel 

April 30, 2024

During a hearing on the lawsuit filed by Nicaragua against Germany, the court’s president, Nawaf Salam, said “the circumstances are not such as to require the exercise of its power under article 41 of the statute to indicate provisional measures.” The court remains “deeply concerned about the catastrophic living conditions of the Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, in particular in view of the prolonged and widespread deprivation of food and other basic necessities to which they have been subjected.”

United Nations chief Antonio Guterres expressed alarm over reports of mass graves discovered in Gaza

April 30, 2024

“It is impertaive that international independent investigators with forensic expertise are allowed immediate access to the sites of these mass graves to establish the precise circumstances under which the Palestinians lost their lives and were buried or reburied,” Guterres said.

Israeli FM warns of ’wave of severe antisemitism’ if ICC issues arrest warrants

April 28, 2024

“Due to the severity of the threat to Jewish communities abroad, Foreign Minister Katz also instructed to involve Jewish organizations abroad in the need to prepare for such events, including coordinating the enhancement of security around Jewish institutions with the authorities,” a Foreign Ministry statement said. This call comes in response to the possible ICC arrest warrants.

Israeli gov’t received indications ICC could issue arrest warrant for Netanyahu, ministers

April 28, 2024

The Israeli government has received indications from senior legal officials that the International Criminal Court (ICC) prosecutor is considering issuing arrest warrants for Israeli officials, including PM Benjamin Netanyahu, defense Minsiter Yoav Gallant and Chief Staff Herzi Halevi. 

Iran has warned U.S. any fresh Israeli military act will face decisive and quick response

April 16, 2024

Iranian Foreign Affairs Minister Hossein Amir Abdollahain, speaking with the Austrian Foreign Minister, claimed that Iran has taken a moderate approach to local conflict and blames Israeli aggression on Palestine (as well as neighboring countries like Iran itself) for the escalation of suffering in the region. Speaking with the British Foreign Minister, Abdollahian stated that in attacking Israel the Iranian military is within its right to self-defense and that Britain’s support of Israel is resulting in hypocrisy by fixating on Iranian military behavior over Israeli military behavior. Finally, he found support in the Chinese Foreign Minister who found Iran to have “principled positions” in the face of Western “double standards.”

UN Security Council committee unable to agree on Palestinian bid for full membership

April 16, 2024

The 15-member UN Security Council, which requires at least 9 votes and no veto from any of its five permanent members (which includes the United States) to pass a resolution, was unable to come to an agreement on whether or not Palestine meets the criteria to become a full UN member. Since 2012 it has been recognized as a non-member observer state, and the council will soon vote on a draft proposition to ultimately determine the state of its membership in the UN.

How pro-Palestinian protestors brought traffic to a screeching halt across the US

April 16, 2024

Across major American cities like New York, Chicago, and San Francisco, protests against Israeli’s treatment of Palestinians erupted which aimed to cause disruptions to traffic and the economy. Protests caused the Brooklyn Bridge to temporarily close, disrupted access to an aerospace manufacturer in Connecticut, and blocked the highway to an international airport in Chicago.

US defense chief: ’We don’t have any evidence’ Israel is committing genocide in Gaza

April 9, 2024

Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin stated in the Senate Armed Services Committee that the Pentagon lacks evidence of any concerted genocidal effort against Palestinians on the part of the IDF. This was in response to claims that Biden should cut shipping weapons to the Israeli state due to evidence of genocidal acts. Senator Elizabeth Warren, a senior member of the committee, claimed that the UN International Court of Justice possesses enough evidence to legally consider IDF practices genocidal.

Israeli drone strikes intentionally target 7 international aid workers

April 4, 2024

On April 1 in central Gaza, 7 charity workers from the World Central Kitchen, including an American, were killed when over the course of a few minutes targeted Israeli drone strikes destroyed three vehicles they were being transported in. Eyewitness reports as well as the WCK founder and the UN Special Rapporteur for Palestine claim that the attacks on the aid workers were intentional, while Israeli officials including Netanyahu claimed the attacks were due to misidentification. 

Key Issues

Contributions by Oshin Pandey

This section includes the latest and most pressing news regarding SiC’s key security issues.

Xi meets Blinken, says China hopes US can view its development in a positive light

April 26, 2024

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken paid a visit to Beijing at the invitation of Chinese President Xi Jinping. China is prepared to work with the US, according to Xi, but collaboration ought to be mutually beneficial. 

Prabowo’s election heralds a more muscular Indonesian role on the regional stage

April 26, 2024

The elections of 2024 in Indonesia represented a significant turning point in the country’s democratic development. With 58.6% of the vote, or over 96 million votes, Prabowo has been proclaimed the victor of the presidential election by the electoral commission.

Deported Migrants from Pakistan Concerned About Their Future

April 24, 2024

After being deported from Pakistan and going back to their home country, several Afghan migrants are worried about their future. They are requesting housing and employment possibilities from the Islamic Emirate.

Central Asian Economies in Limbo As China Fails To Find Its Feet

April 24, 2024

According to World Bank forecasts, during the next two years, China’s economic troubles will probably have an impact on economies throughout the Caucasus and Central Asia. 

Pro-China Solomon Islands PM fails to secure outright majority

April 22, 2024

The current prime minister of the Solomon Islands was expected to lose by a narrow margin, compelling the pro-Beijing leader of the Pacific to court a disorganized array of possible coalition allies.

’Infiltrators’: Modi accused of anti-Muslim hate speech amid India election

April 22, 2024

Amid the nation’s general elections, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi made controversial remarks on Sunday in which he compared the Muslim community to “infiltrators” and promoted anti-Muslim stereotypes. As a result, he is being accused of inciting hatred against Muslims.

After Russia’s Veto: The Future of the Sanctions Regime Against North Korea

April 12, 2024

A resolution to extend the mandate of the Panel of Experts (PoE), which was established in accordance with UNSC resolution (UNSCR) 1718 (2006) to monitor (UN member states’ compliance with and enforcement of) the UN sanctions regime on North Korea, was not adopted by the UN Security Council (UNSC) due to a veto filed by Russia.

’Living in fear’: Myanmar’s RCSS conscription kicks off

April 11, 2024

In its headquarters region, the Restoration Council of Shan State has increased forced conscription, but the troop buildup appears to be oriented more towards other ethnic armed groups than the Myanmar military.

Russia, Kazakhstan evacuate 110,000 people as record floods set to worsen

April 10, 2024

More than 110,000 people have been forced to evacuate in Russia and Kazakhstan as a result of the Ural River, the third-longest in Europe, overflowing its banks and inundating cities and villages along its course due to rapidly melting snow.

 A Guide to India’s 2024 Elections

April, 2024

In April and May 2024, Indian citizens will participate in general elections for the first time in five years. In history, the election of 2024 will be the most extensive democratic endeavor. Elections in India incur the highest costs globally, even exceeding those in the United States. An estimated $8.7 billion was spent by political parties and candidates in 2019 to attract over 900 million eligible voters.

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May 7, 2024
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